Market mapping helps you understand where constraints that hold back women’s participation and benefit in a specific market may exist including factors that affect climate vulnerability and gender and household dynamics. The Intervention design tool will enable you to build on this understanding and identify interventions that can address these constraints and increase the participation of and benefit received by women from markets. GEM aims to bring about systemic change and this tool will help you identify interventions that can bring about such change.
Average time investment for using this toolThis stage can be done in different ways. If you are running using market mapping in a multi-stakeholder setting, involving different market actors, you can incorporate this into the session. It can be completed in a day but it is recommended that you take 2-3 days.
Who leadsOxfam project staff, programme managers and partners.
Who needs to be involved
market representatives/ actors that have an overview of market systems; local and international NGOs, government actors and civil society groups working in the intervention area; and in the case of understanding labour markets, key informants and representatives of the type of labour identified should be involved. Consider representatives from associations/unions and training institutions.
Activity 1: Identify underlying problemsTake your list of constraints identified from market mapping and drill down to the underlying problems that need to be addressed.
Step 1: List the constraints
These will be broad topics (like lack of access to finance, extension services, women overburdened with work on the farm and care responsibilities, specific climate vulnerabilities). You may identify multiple problems associated with the three GEM themes. If you have too many for the next stage, consider having a brain storm to do an initial prioritisation. Pick the top 5-6 for the next stage.
Step 2: Carry out problem tree analysis
For each constraint, carry out an analysis that identifies what the root cause of the problem is. Examples of what we mean by root causes are given below.
You can identify underlying problems by using Problem tree analysis 2.1. Form groups of six to eight people each with a flip chart paper. 2.2. Write the problem or issue at the centre of the flip chart. This becomes the trunk of the tree (see example below). 2.3. Identify the causes of the focal problem. These are the roots. 2.4. Identify the consequences of the problem. These become branches. It can help to write these initially in post-it notes so that they can be moved around.
Most importantly remember that this exercise is designed to stimulate discussion and debate so give people time to explore the issues in as much depth as required. You can facilitate discussions by asking key questions such as:
- What are the political, economic and social dimensions of this problem?
- How does this problem relate to power? Who are the influential actors affecting this problem? This will be useful information later.
- How does this problem relate to climate change – is it a contributing cause or is the consequence exacerbated by climate change?
- How is this situation changing?
- Are the underlying problems getting worse or better?
Activity 2: Prioritising issues to tackleTake your list of underlying problems and determine which ones present the best chances for change.
Step 1: Develop change statements
For each of the problems identified in Activity 1, turn them into a statement that describes the change you want to see.
For example Problem: Government policy and investment focusing on large scale agriculture.
Change statement: Government focuses investment and policy on small scale agriculture that benefits women Phrasing this into a change statement allows you to focus your subsequent analysis on the change you want to see.
Step 2: Assessing choices
Divide into small groups of 4-6 people. Each group takes a sample of the change statements and considers the following questions in relation to each statement.
- Scale of Impact: How many people can be reached by this change?
- Depth of impact: How transformational is this change?
- Capacity: Are we (and allies) well placed to focus on this issue?
- Opportunity: Is there an external opportunity to influence?
- Energy: Is there energy on this?
It can help assessment if you score each of the change statements. Use the scores to facilitate a discussion on which change will give you the greatest opportunity for Impact You should conclude this process with an agreement on the Change Statements your GEM programme will focus on.
Activity 3: Power analysisIdentify who you need to influence to bring about the change you want
Step 1: Identifying stakeholders - champions, blockers
Break into groups, with each group taking one of the Change statements you have decided to focus on. Which institutions and structures are most relevant to the change you want to see? Who are the actors most supportive of, or antagonistic to your proposed change (both within and outside the institutions you‟ve identified)? What level of influence or degree of power do they have to deliver the change you want? What and who is likely to influence them? What are the most relevant processes to influence those you have identified? Who are your potential allies? What could they offer to your influencing work? What would their limitations be?
Step 2: Visualisation
It can help your discussion to visualise it. The downloadable tool gives examples of how to do this.
You can also map relationships between stakeholders, asking the question “who influences who”. This can help you understand where the most appropriate intervention points exist for you, given you contacts and capacity.
At the end of this activity, you will have identified the stakeholders who have the power to bring about the change you seek as well as those who can influence them. You will also have started to identify what sort of things will influence this latter group.
Activity 4: Identify appropriate strategyIdentify the right strategy or combination of strategies that will help your programme bring about the necessary change.
Step 1: Collating information
In groups complete the first five columns of the table in prided in the tool. The first, second and third columns in the table should be directly taken from the analysis youve undertaken on the solution you wish to promote and the power mapping. You will potentially already have started to discuss Means to influence and Key partners and allies but if necessary do some brainstorming work to identify these.
Step 2: Identifying relevant strategies
A range of strategies can be used to bring about the systemic change GEM programmes envisage. A sample of these is described below. Look through the description of the different strategies below and consider in groups which ones are applicable to your context. When you have this discussion, consider the following:
- Approach – Which strategies are most likely to influence the individuals and institutions whose support is necessary to bring about change
- Alliances – What strategies are most relevant to the combination of allies that will maximize the chances of success?
- Events – If change is most likely to occur around a specific event, whether foreseeable (elections) or unforeseeable (natural disaster), which strategies are the most relevant?
- Complexity – Appropriate strategies will differ if the change towards which Oxfam seeks to contribute is simple (i.e. Government abolishes user fees) as opposed to complex and messy (changing norms about unpaid care work).
- Scale – Strategies vary in their ability to achieve scale and depth of impact.
- Sequencing – Some strategies may lay the ground for others – e.g. strengthening civil society may be a pre-requisite for successful multistakeholder processes.
At the end of this process, you should have identified the strategies that will form the basis of your GEM programme.